Los Angeles-based photographer Andrew Hall‘s recent “Orb” series is not only visually arresting but also educational; several of the photos were used by New Scientist to illustrate an article on atomic physics. So just what are these neon-bright, spinning and pulsing balls shown in each photograph? Each unique form is the result of using a long exposure as well as various rigs made by the photographer to photograph small LEDs as they spin on controlled axes. Repeated, overlapping orbits give the impression of three-dimensionality. Alterations in speed and direction further defined each form. Check out some of the results below.